მენეჯმენტი იაპონურად

Kaizen
ამ ხნის კაცი ვარ და ამდენი რამე მინახავს…

ასევე გამიგონია, მისწავლია, წამიკითხავს და გამომიცდია…

მაგრამ ნამდვილად არ ვიცოდი, თურმე თანამედროვე მენეჯმენტში რამდენი ტერმინი შესულა იაპონური ენიდან და კულტურიდან.

თარგმნა მეზარება, გაეცანით:

Five S
describe workplace practices conducive to visual control and lean production(i.e. minimal waste). The five terms in Japanese are:

1. Seiri(整理): Separating needed from unneeded items-tools, parts, materials, paperwork-and discard the unneeded.
2. Seiton(整頓): Sorting or neatly arrange what is left-a place for everything and everything in its place.
3. Seisō(清掃): Shine or Clean and wash.
4. Seiketsu(清潔): Standardizing or systemized cleanliness i.e. knowing what your responsibilities are.
5. Shitsuke(躾): Sustaining or discipline, to perform the first four Ss.

Muda, Mura, Muri
Three Japanese terms often used together in the Toyota Production System (and called the Three Ms) that collectively describe wasteful practices to be eliminated.

  • Muda(無駄): Any activity that consumes resources without creating value for the customer or “waste” as Joshua Isaac Walters defines it “activities that add cost but do not add value”.
  • Mura(斑 or ムラ): Unevenness in an operation; for example, an uneven work pace in an operation causing operators to hurry and then wait. Mura is avoided through Just-in-Time systems which are based on little or no inventory, by supplying the production process with the right part, at the right time, in the right amount, and first-in, first out component flow.
  • Muri(無理): means unreasonableness or overburdening equipment or operators. Muri can be avoided through standardised work.

Heijunka(平準化)

It has two meanings : One is the leveling of production by volume. The other is leveling production by product type or mix. Toyota’s view is that production systems that vary the required throughput suffer from “mura” and “muri” with capacity being ‘forced’ in some periods. So their approach is to manufacture at the long-term average demand and carry an inventory proportional to the variability of demand, stability of the production process and the frequency of shipments.

Also, from a mix of products, rather than just blindly following the current market demand, simulate it for a greater period and level the production.

Kaizen(改善)

Continuous improvement of an entire value stream or an individual process to create more value with less waste. 改 (‘kai’) KAI means ‘change’ or ‘the action to correct’ or ‘big water’ – ‘the ocean’ 善 (‘zen’) ZEN means ‘good’.

It basically requires to have eyes on the bigger picture and the whole picture(both the process and the result); quit blaming and the primitive way of “command and control”.
Related to Shewhart cycle, also called Deming wheel or PDCA i.e. Plan, Do, Check, Act.

Kaizen Teian(改善 提案)
Improvement through suggestions – the Japanese approach to suggestion schemes, focusing on participation rates rather than the value of specific ideas.

Kanban(看板)

A kanban is a signaling device that gives authorization and instructions for the production or withdrawal (conveyance) of items in a pull system. “kan 看 カン” means visual, and “ban 板 バン” means card or board; so the literal meaning is signboard.

An example of kanban thinking: in the production of a widget, the operator has two shelves, one on either side of their workplace. The raw materials can be designated to arrive on one shelf and the finished articles placed on the other. These shelves can then be designated to act as kanbans. The outgoing kanban signals the customer’s need so that when it is empty, the operator must produce one more widget.kanban

Jidoka(自働化)
Providing machines and operators the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work. This enables operations to build in quality at each process and to separate men and machines for more efficient work. Or simply autonomation or intelligent automation or automation with a human touch.

Andon(行灯)
A signal light used to alert workers to problems. Combined with Jidoka, machines can be designed to stop automatically and then signal the problem with an andon light. Literal meaning is “paper lantern”.
Work is stopped until a solution has been found. The alerts may be logged to a database so that they can be studied as part of a continuous-improvement program.

Kami Shibai(紙芝居)
Auditing system where supervisors check if standard operating procedures are being followed.
Literally, it means “paper theater” i.e the storyteller tells several stories using a set of illustrated boards, inserted into the stage and withdrawn one by one as the story was told; originally from 12th century Buddhist moral dramas for the illiterate. The audience of the kamishibai could conduct a “self audit”, if they like, and learn from the visual presentation whether they were living their life in a moral way.
Kamishibai as part of the Toyota Production System clarifies the 5W1H (who, what, where, when, why and how) for auditing and then places the cards on a visual board and then kamishibai boards are used for weekly, monthly and even quarterly audits.

Genchi Genbutsu (現地現物)
Often simplified as “Getcha your boots on”, it means “go and see for yourself” and it is an integral part of the Toyota Production System. The notion is that rather than simply hear or read about a problem and make a suggestion for improvement, one should actually go to its direct location and experience the situation first hand.

This attitude also known as Gemba attitude. Gemba is a japanese term for “the place where the truth can be found”(Japanese detectives call the crime scene a gemba!).

Irei(異例)
Irei projects are one that will be accomplished no matter what it takes…Within Toyota, there is a rare and secretive designation for certain development projects known as “irei”, which is roughly translated as “not ordinary” or “exceptional” and refers to vehicles that the company will spend any amount on and go to almost any lengths to engineer, market and perfect.

Nagara(乍ら)
The practice of integrating totally different machines in one flow line or cell. Often used to refer to small scale machines with one single use which facilitates this. Literal meaning would be “though; notwithstanding; while; during; both; all;”

Kaikaku(改革)
Radical improvement, usually in a business process, that affects the future value stream. Literally, reform/innovation.

Hanedashi(跳ね出し)
A device that allows a machine to automatically unload a part without waiting for an operator. Japanese equivalent derived from hanedasu (跳ね出す) meaning to spring or rush out.

Poka Yoke(ポカヨケ)
Japanese term which means mistake proofing or fail-safing…to avoid (yokeru) inadvertent errors (poka).
A poka yoke device is one that prevents incorrect parts from being made or assembled, or easily identifies a flaw or error.
Originally described as Baka-yoke, but as this means “fool-proofing” (or “idiot proofing”) the name was changed to the milder Poka-yoke.
It kinda reminds me of Murphy’s Law that “Everything that can go wrong will go wrong”. Also modified as Sod’s law or Finagle’s law adding the phrase “at the worst possible moment”. This also is a very important law when it comes to designing things or disaster prevention.

Chaku Chaku(着々)
Japanese for “steadily”, Chaku Chaku is an efficient style of production in which all the machines needed to make a part are situated in the correct sequence very close together.

Atarimae Hinshitsu (当たり前品質)
The idea that things will work as they are supposed to (e.g. a pen will write.).

Miryokuteki Hinshitsu (魅力的品質)
The idea that things should have an aesthetic quality which is different from “atarimae hinshitsu” (e.g. a pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the writer, and leave behind ink that is pleasing to the reader).

Kansei Engineering or Kansei Kougaku(感性工学)
The Japanese term for “sense/sensitivity engineering” , this is a method for translating feelings and impressions into product parameters. The method was invented in the 1970s by Professor Mitsuo Nagamachi (Dean of Hiroshima International University). An example:
Sports cars can be described with adjectives like sporty, powerful, elegant. But, which parameters influence these impressions? Kansei Engineering can show to what extent product attributes (e.g. the suspension, the gear ratio and the engine power) have an effect on these impressions. Moreover, target values for the mentioned product properties can be derived.

Taguchi(田口) Experiments
A technique for designing and performing experiments to investigate processes where the output depends on many factors (variables; inputs) without having to tediously and uneconomically run the process using all possible combinations of values of those variables. It was developed by Gen’ichi Taguchi.

By systematically choosing certain combinations of variables it is possible to separate their individual effects.Hence, a special variant of Design of Experiments (DOE).

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